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Tangyin Drum Rhyme in Ancient Capital Chang'an

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Xi'an drum music is mainly popular in the urban and rural areas of Xi'an, Shaanxi and along the foothills of the southern end of the mountain. The folk tradition was called "musical instruments" and "fine music". It is a large-scale comprehensive musical instrument mainly composed of wind instruments and a multi-segment structure with singing and dancing. . It originated in the Tang Dynasty, started in the Song Dynasty, prospered in the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, and flourished in the Qing Dynasty. Xi'an drum music is known as the "living fossil" of ancient Chinese music.

In Zhouzhi County, Xi'an, there is a Nanji Xiandong Village Drum Music Club with a long history. It is said that during the Tang Dynasty “Anshi Rebellion”, palace musicians scattered in Zhouzhi County Nanjixian Village under Zhongnan Mountain, and began to teach music. After more than a thousand years, Oral teaching is still active in folks today. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Xi'an Drum Music has gradually formed a complete large-scale music form on the basis of retaining the basic morphological characteristics of ancient Chinese traditional music. Many factors in traditional Chinese music, such as music, instruments, rhythms, tunes, tunes, words, as well as performance forms, melody structure, and melody, have all left their marks in this ancient music. , Flute, shuangyun gong, war drum, seat drum, music drum, solo drum, single-sided drum, high-drum drum, gong, cymbal, cymbal, hinge, wooden mule, etc.

Xi'an Drum Music retains the ancient Chinese notation. I once discovered, recorded, and organized a solo piece "Yu Lin Ling" of Xi'an Drum Music (or Guanzi), played by the Xi'an Drum Art Troupe of the Xi'an Conservatory of Music, and then went to Germany, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Belgium. , Spain, Poland, Uzbekistan, Malaysia and other countries spread the show, causing a big sensation.

Duan Anjie's "Miscellaneous Records of Yuefu" contained: "People of 'Yu Linling', because of Emperor Tang Ming driving back to Luogu, and heard the rain drenched, so Zhang Yehu wrote the song title." That is, "Yu Linling "This tune was originally a song by Tang Minghuang to mourn Yang Yuhuan, ringing in the rain, which was originally played by Li Yuan's son Zhang Yehu.

Hu Zhenheng wrote in the Tang Qu of "Tang Yin Kuai Jiu": "Yu Linling, Emperor Xingshu, the south into the Xiegu, Lin Yu mid-day, the smell of the bell corresponds to the mountain, mourning the concubine, because it sounds like Yu Lin The bell song resents hatred. "Also in the solo music in" Three Songs "is the song" Yu Lin Ling ".

"Yulin Lin" was originally a Jiaofang song. Among the names of the Tang Dynasty Yanle music in Cui Lingqin's "Jiaofang Ji", there are forty-six types of Daqu, and there is also a "Yulin Lin" (also known as "Return to Beijing Music"). 》). However, from the historical data of ancient Chinese music, there was only written description before, but the score was never seen. In the mid-1980s, we found an ancient song called "Yu Linling" in "Xi'an Baidaoyi Religious Manuscript Collection" from Mr. Yu Zhu of Xi'an Buddhist Drum Music Society. Qu remains and has survived to this day. The speed of the music is slow and the tones are deep. From the analysis of the artistic conception expressed in the music, its melody and melody are suitable for the performance of a musical instrument similar to a human voice—the pipe (that is, cymbals). This aroused our great interest and attention, so we consulted a lot of relevant information, and after repeated analysis and research, not only the title of this song "Yu Linling" is the same as that of Shi Zai's "Yu Linling", but the performance of the music is also very emotional. Match, the same instrument used.

Records of Yuefu Miscellaneous records: "The 筚 篥 者 本 龟 (音: 丘) is also a kind of sadness, which is similar to 笳 国." The tube originally originated from the Guizi Kingdom of the Western Regions, and was later introduced into the Central Plains. Its tone is bright and high-pitched, and it is good at playing smooth, deep tunes. "Yu Lin Ling" has a slow and steady speed, and its music is desolate and sad. With its unique tone and playing skills, it expresses the sorrow and sadness of the music to the fullest, which makes people cry.

This piece of music is not long and can be divided into three parts: "Introduction", "Adagio" and "Allegro". The melody of "Introduction" is unsteady. With the empty sound and the continuous descending rhythm of the homophonic type, people are brought into the sad memories. The music of "Adagio" has a slow rhythm, a smooth and deep melody, which gives people a sense of howling wind, rain, and rain. Vaguely, there seemed to be a ringing bell. "Allegro" music uses new materials to form a sharp contrast with the "slow plate". The big jump melody makes the music very exciting and powerful.

The music of "Yu Lin Ling" seems like a frustrated person facing cruel reality and suffering. At this moment, the feelings for the loved ones are more aroused, but the reality is clearly showing a sad scene of a stranger. The music fully expresses the mood of sighing and helplessness in the face of the Mengling Cangshan and the ringing road during the severe cold and rainy night.

"Yu Lin Ling" has been in existence for more than 30 years since it was discovered, translated and circulated. In 2010, it participated in the performance of the 29th World Music Education Conference in Beijing. In 2013, he participated in the "Chinese National Instrumental Folk Music Combination Exhibition Performance Award" organized by the Ministry of Culture and won the first prize of "Excellent Performance". The 2017 "Yu Lin Ling" was compiled in the book "An Introduction to Xi'an Drum Music". The Tang Yin drum rhyme in Xi'an drum music has been discovered and organized by us, and the process of notation, translation, performance, transmission and circulation is also a vivid example of the rebirth of traditional Chinese music and cultural heritage. In Shaanxi folk, there are many centuries-old communities inheriting Xi'an drum music, and many famous artists are organizing the Xi'an drum music songs, verses and Tibetan music. As early as April 2004, the Ministry of Culture approved "Xi'an Drum Music" as the second batch of professional pilot projects for the protection of Chinese folk culture. In May 2006, it was included in the "First Batch of National Intangible Cultural Heritage List". In October 2009, he was selected as a UNESCO Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage. Under such a complete protection system, this Tangyin drum rhyme from the ancient capital Changan thousands of years ago will be passed down forever.

Cheng Tianjian

Cheng Tianjian

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